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The KGV 1d Red
The Colour Map
The Colour Map

The Colour Map and Triangle.

I present below my version of Orlo-Smith's famous colour map for the 1d Reds, followed by a version of the map converted into a colour triangle, as used in colour theory.

The Orlo-Smith KGV 1d Colour Map.

The colour map arranges the 1d Red shades along two axes - a colour axis running from cerise (O.S. Rosine) on the left through rose red to scarlet and scarlet vermilion on the right, and a brightness axis running from pale at the top to deep (or dark - this axis seems to serve two purposes in the O.-S. scheme) at the bottom. In my version I present the map as a table which basically follows the traditional O-S scheme, but where the basic shade group (or groups) in the various cells are labeled with the Gibbons description of the shade (as opposed to Orlo-Smith's) in bold type, with each cell then listing the individual shades under their traditional G numbers and Orlo-Smith shade descriptions.

Bright shades are shown in italics, while dull shades are underlined.

The Salmon shades are shown separately as usual, but you will also see that I have added an extra columns for the various Orange Red and Brownish Red shades. In the original Orlo-Smith scheme, these shades also appeared separately, below the Deep Scarlets (i.e, in O.S. terms they were basically deep dull Scarlets, or deep reddish Salmons).

 

Pale Rosy Red.
G25: Terracotta

P. Rose Verm'n.
G66: Salmon Pk

Brownish Rosine.
G23.5: Brownish Rose
Dull Carm. Rosine#.
G32: Brownish Red
Reddish Carmine.
G72: Brownish Red

(Brt) Rose Red.
G12/14.5:
Salmon Red
(Pinkish) Rosy Red.
G26: Salmon

(Pinkish) Vermilion.
G27: Salmon Eosin Reddish Rosine.
G24.5: Orange Red

 

 

Brownish Scarlet.
G25: Indian Red

Cerise Pink.
G70.5: Lilac Rose

Paleish Blueish  Rosine.
G29: Carm. Pk

Pale Reddish Rose^.
G28: Pink
G67: Pink

P. Rose Carmine Red*.
G20: Rose

 

Pale Scarlet.
G15: Reddish Pink

 

Blueish Carmine.
G69: Rosine (Perf. OS)

Blueish Rosine
G29: Rosine

Carmine Rose/
Rose Carmine^.
G30 Carmine Rose
G68: Rosine
Rosy Carmine^.
G33: Carmine (Anil.)
Carmine Rosine#.
G22: Rose Carmine G63: Rose Carmine
Rosine Carmine# G.74: Carm. Rose

Rose Red
G21: Rose Red 
Carmine Red.
G24: Br'nish Red
G62: Carmine Reddish Carmine.
G31: Carmine
G73: Carmine Red

Carmine Scarlet#.
G10: Carm. Red
G10A: Brt Carm. Red

Reddish Scarlet. G16: Red**
Scarlet.
G10.5: Bright Red
G17-19: Scarlet
G17A: Brt Scarlet

Scarlet Vermilion.
G10.5: Brt Red
G11: Brt Red (Anil.)

Dp Carm. Cerise.
G70.5 Damson

 

Deep Rosine Carmine#.
G70: Dp Rosine

Dp Carmine.
G23: Dp Carmine
G32.5/77: Maroon
 

Dp Carmine Scarlet#.
G13: Dark Red
 

Deep Scarlet.
G17.5: Dp Scarlet
G60: Deep Scarlet (Anil.)
G17.5A: Dp Brt Red
G61: Deep Brt Red (Anil.)

 

 

    * Rose Carmine Red here is Rose Red with some Carmine. Rosy Red is between S.G. Red and Rose Red.

    ** In Orlo-Smith's original colour map "Red" is defined as "Signal Red" (Post-Office Red), a bright shade between Gibbons Scarlet and Rose Red. However, most G16's are rather duller and somewhat redder than this.

    ^ Rose Carmine here is a shade between Carmine and Bright Rose - Carmine Rose is similar but somewhat bluer in shade. Rose here is a medium shade , deeper than in the SG Colour Guide, and closer to the Bright Rose of the Colour Key.

    ^^ Rosine Carmine is Carmine plus some Rosine - Carmine Rosine is Rosine plus some Carmine. 

    #  Carmine Scarlet here is a Dark Scarlet shade between Carmine Red and Scarlet (as Scarlet Vermilion in the Colour Key).

The KGV 1d Red Colour Triangle.

Colour Theory.

The problem with the traditional Orlo-Smith diagram is that it tries to present all the different colour shades along the one (horizontal) axis. To understand the difficulties which this causes we need to understand basic colour theory.

In terms of shade, colour is actually three-dimensional; to the eye there are three basic colours, red, green and blue*, and the actual hue ("chroma") of any given shade is determined by the relative strengths of these three basic colours in the shade. Some shades are mixtures of two basic colours only - yellow and orange are mixtures of red and green, cyan is green plus blue, magenta and purple are blue plus red, and of course there many other intermediate (two colour) shades. Most real world shades however are mixtures of all three basic colours. O-S "Rose Red" for example is basically pure red plus roughly equal amounts of blue and green (with a bit more blue than green). Increasing the amount of blue in Rose Red produces the Carmine Rosines and Carmines, while increasing the amount of green produces the Orange Reds.

Now, the Orlo Smith map uses a one dimensional colour axis, running (in O-S terms) from Carmine Pink (a blueish red) on the left to Scarlet Vermilion (pure red plus some green) on the right. The vertical axis is not shade but depth of colour. You can see the problem - there is no room on the horizontal axis for all the various three colour "mixed" shades, so they are usually accommodated as deeper or darker versions of other more basic shades (e.g, Carmine is grouped with Rose Red), or dealt with separately (like the Salmons and Brownish Reds).

*  These are emitted colours, as seen by the eye - printed or painted colours are made by mixing red, yellow and blue primary colours.

The Colour Triangle.

Thus the Orlo-Smith approach gets rather complicated - it really needs extra columns for the Carmines, Salmons and Brownish Reds, to say nothing of the various sub-shades like Carmine Rosine and Rosine Carmine. So, rather than expanding the Orlo-Smith diagram forever, in the table below I arrange the various shades in a two dimensional colour table, corresponding (more or less) to the colour maps used in colour theory.

In this table there are two colour axes, one running from Cerise (red plus some blue) on the left to pure red (roughly, S.G. Carmine Scarlet) on the right, and the other from pure red at the bottom up to Vermilion (red plus some green, in effect a yellowish red) at the top. As before, the basic shades in each cell are labeled with their Gibbons shade names in bold.

In this scheme all the main 1d Red shades, whether two-colour or three-colour, fit into a rough triangle (backgrounded in white) defined by these two axes, and I think this gives much better idea of how the various shades fit together than does the O-S map. Note that in my scheme I group the pale, deep and pink versions of the same shade all together, which is of course not really in accord with strict colour theory (the pinks should really be top left, towards white). Also, some shades have been omitted for reasons of space, and the very deep shades are shown separately, outside the main triangle and backgrounded in grey.

One point to note is that the more "mixed" colours are, the duller they often appear to be - the Carmines and Brownish Reds for instance are not just browner than the Carmine Roses, they are also somewhat duller. To see why we must remember that Carmine Rose is mainly red plus some blue, while the Carmines are Carmine Rose plus some extra green. But a small amout of green plus equal amounts of red and blue effectively makes a weak white (i.e, grey) , so adding some green to Carmine Rose effectively adds a little grey. Thus the Carmines are browner and duller than the Carmine Roses, the Brownish Reds are generally bluer and duller than the Scarlets, and so on.

(Note also that in the real world actual pigments are never pure shades - thus real Vermilion is not just red plus green - it will actually include a small amount of blue - and as we have just seen this has the effect of adding a little grey to the shade. Similarly, the Rose/Cerise shades will include some green. Thus even the shades shown here on the axes of the colour triangle will also normally look somewhat duller in reality than their theoretical pure two-colour equivalents).

You can verify all this with the colour palettes and maps on your computer, which generates colours using red, green and blue phosphors, but note that the "pure" colours on the computer screen may not correspond exactly to the basic hues of colour theory - for example on the screen the "pure red" (the red phosphor alone) may be anything from scarlet to vermilion, depending on which particular phosphor or led the manufacturer has used.

 

 

 

Dp Dark Carmine.
G77: Crimson

Dp (Reddish) Carmine.
G32.5/77: Maroon

Brownish Rosine.
G23.5: Brownish Rose

Reddish Rosine.
G24.5: Or'ge Red

Pale Rose Verm'n.
G66: Salmon Pink  

(Pinkish) Vermilion.
G27: Salmon Eosin

 

 

Dark Carmine
G31.5: Dull Crimson
 

Reddish Carmine.
G72: Br'nish Red Carmine Red.
G24: Brownish Red
G62: Carmine

Dull Carmine Rosine^^.
G32: Br'nish Red

Rosy Red.
G26: Salmon
Pale Rosy Red.
G25: Terracotta

 

Scarlet Vermilion.
G11: Brt Red

Reddish Scarlet.
G16: Red.

 

 

Brt Carmine.
G73B: Carmine
Dp Brt Carmine.
G23: Dp Carmine
 

Carmine.
G31: Carmine
G73: Carmine Red

Carmine Rosine^^.
G22: Rose Carmine
G63
: Rose Red
Rosine Carmine^^.
G70: Deep Reddish Rosine

G74: Carmine Rose

Rose Red.
G12/14.5: Salmon Red
G21: Rose Red

 

P. Scarlet.
G15: Reddish Pink
Scarlet.
G10.5: Brt Red
G11: Brt Red
(Eos.)
G17-19: Scarlet
G17A: Brt Scarlet
Dp Scarlet.
G17.5: Dp Scarlet
G60: Dp Scarlet (Anil.)
Dp Brt Scarlet.
G13A: Deep Red
G17.5A: Dp Brt Scarlet.
G61: Dp Brt Red (Anil.) 

Dp Carmine Cerise.
G70.5: Damson

Reddish Cerise.
G71: Reddish Plum

Rosy Carmine*
G33: Carmine Aniline

Cerise Pink.
G70.5: Lilac Rose

Blueish Carmine.
G69: Rosine (Perf. OS)

Blueish Rosine
G29: Carm. Pk, Rosine
Brt Rose*

G27B: Salmon Rose (Eosin)

Pale Reddish Rose.
G28: Pink
G67: Pink
Carmine Rose/
Rose Carmine.*
G30: Carmine Rose
G68: Carm. Pk, Rosine

 

 

Carm. Scarlet#.
G10: Carmine Red
Brt Carm. Scarlet#.
G10A: Brt Carm. Red
Dp Carm. Scarlet#.
G13: Dark Red

 

 

 

Dp Brt Rose.
G32.5: Dp Rosine

Dp Carm. Rose*.
G32.5: Rose Crimson

 

 

 

 

    * Rose Carmine here is a shade between Carmine and Bright Rose - Carmine Rose is similar but somewhat brighter and bluer in shade. Rose here is a medium shade, somewhat deeper than in the SG Colour Guide, and closer to the Bright Rose of the Colour Key.

    ^ Rose Carmine Red is Rose Red with some Carmine. Rosy Red is between S.G. Red and Rose Red.

    ^^ Rosine Carmine is Carmine plus some Rosine. Carmine Rosine is Rosine plus some Carmine.

    #  Carmine Scarlet is between Carmine Red and Scarlet (as Scarlet Vermilion in the Colour Key).

    James Chapman

    January 2004.

    Last revised: 

    July 2017.
     

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